## Week 12, Inferential Statistics:

t-tests & correlations.

## Lecture notes

- Plato's Cave and the approximation of reality by science.
- Deductive v. Inductive reasoning and link between theory / hypothetical constructs & data.
- Sampling distribution, M of the sampling distribution
*Z, t,*critical ratio, statistical significance.- The Central Limit Theorem and sampling distributions.
- Correlations and assessing shared variance.
- Alpha (α), critical value.
- Type I error, Type II error.

This week we will discuss the t-test and correlation coefficient. Along the way we will learn a set of basic statistical concepts, some of which are cited in italics here.

Lecture notes: Statistics notes # 2

## Readings

**Text:**

Suggested background reading: "Introduction to Methods in Science" (or the eqivalent) in whatever text you are using.

Focus Modules:

You have multiple modules this week. Working though all of them will help you a lot in comprehending statistical analyses and logic:

Statistics module 3, Statistical reasoning; Plato's Allegory of the Cave.

Statistics Module 4, Testing hypotheses, the Critical Ratio.

For lecture & Discussion Group:

## Discussion Group

Calculate your t-test, finish your Research Paper results section.

You will use a t-test worksheet for this assignment.

Statistics Module 5, Computing t provides step by step instructions.

Statistics module 6, Central limit theorem describes both the Central Limit theorum and how to use the t table to test if your t value is statistically significant.

A very cool demonstration of the Central Limit Theorem is here. Play it to see how larger & larger samples become more "normal".

By now, you have written your introduction and overall research design. Now take the data set we made up (or use your own) and analyze it to test your hypothesis. The data represents 10 participants in each of the experimental and control groups.

Your paper is due ** week 14**; so begin finishing up. Look at the paper assignment for guidance.